We advance to the next chapter of the Gita.  We will post both Johnston and Judge translations or renditions.  Feel free to post others you find illuminating.

KRISHNA:

“Hear again, O thou of mighty arms, my supreme words, which unto thee who art well pleased I will declare because I am anxious for thy welfare.

“Neither the assemblage of the Gods nor the Adept Kings know my origin, because I am the origin of all the Gods and of the Adepts. Whosoever knoweth me to be the mighty Ruler of the universe and without birth or beginning, he among men, undeluded, shall be liberated from all his sins. Subtle perception, spiritual knowledge, right judgment, patience, truth, self-mastery; pleasure and pain, prosperity and adversity; birth and death, danger and security, fear and equanimity, satisfaction, restraint of body and mind, alms-giving, inoffensiveness, zeal and glory and ignominy, all these the various dispositions of creatures come from me. So in former days the seven great Sages and the four Manus who are of my nature were born of my mind, and from them sprang this world. He who knoweth perfectly this permanence and mystic faculty of mine becometh without doubt possessed of unshaken faith. I am the origin of all; all things proceed from me; believing me to be thus, the wise gifted with spiritual wisdom worship me; their very hearts and minds are in me; enlightening one another and constantly speaking of me, they are full of enjoyment and satisfaction. To them thus always devoted to me, who worship me with love, I give that mental devotion by which they come to me. For them do I out of my compassion, standing within their hearts, destroy the darkness which springs from ignorance by the brilliant lamp of spiritual discernment.”

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STUDIES IN THE BHAGAVAD GITA:

There is indication that all the chapters so far have led to this, the Tenth. Krishna offers his "supreme words" to his pupil who no longer doubts but is "well pleased." Also it is possible to assume that this chapter will sum up all the arguments that He has offered to Arjuna, preparing him for the next step. Arjuna is willing and anxious to learn and to do his duty.

Because it is so basic, Krishna continues to bring home the distinction between the perfect and the perfectible, the changeless cause and the changing manifestations. There is THAT which is prior to and is the cause of even the "Gods" who are the fashioners of ever changing manifestation. He is saying that both He and the Gods are One, that both are his nature. And we must add, of the nature of ALL beings.

Krishna is saying that all these forces, conditions and qualities, the armies of both the Kurus and the Pandus, are within Man, and that Man is also identical with the cause and source of them. Man, being identical with Krishna, is both changeless and the ever-changing, the only combination that makes progress possible.

Man is unique in that he is made up of both the perfect and the perfectible, and in this chapter, Krishna is offering a picture of His (and man's) nature as the field of battle in which Arjuna must discriminate between the two, and yet retain the certainty that both are ONE. Both are necessary for man's spiritual growth.

These Sages and Manus are the Great Beings who, born from the unchanging, inaugurated the great cyclic ages and races, and who, according to Chapter IV, have appeared on the scene periodically to save those races from their own destruction. The last sentence restates the idea that true faith has to be based upon knowledge.

We are beginning to see that the object of Arjuna's devotion must not be a person, not even to a wise person, but it has to be those divine perfections that can be named as Truth, Justice, Brotherhood. Can there be anything higher than a devotion to truth? Krishna says He is the origin of all. Can we think of compassion as the origin of all?

Krishna - standing in our hearts with the lamp of spiritual discernment. It sounds very much like saying that when we understand and use universal principle, divine perfections, as the basis for our thinking and perceiving, the darkness will be destroyed. We all have a set of principles, bases of thought, through which we perceive the world. If those principles are untrue, biased, partial, our perceptions will be distorted by that bias. It follows that to clear our perceptions we have to build in the most universal and eternal concepts we can find as our basis for thought and action."

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I was struck by this passage from your post:

We are beginning to see that the object of Arjuna's devotion must not be a person, not even to a wise person, but it has to be those divine perfections that can be named as Truth, Justice, Brotherhood. Can there be anything higher than a devotion to truth? Krishna says He is the origin of all. Can we think of compassion as the origin of all?

"There is no religion higher than Truth."  There is no devotion higher than devotion to Truth. This is what I think Mr. Wadia is trying to say.

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I agree. Margreet's post shows What a fine understanding of hers of  the Wisdom of Bhagavadgita. One in many and many in one strikes one as the undertone of the Bhagavadgita.

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Opening paragraph from Charles Johnston Edition:

THE MASTER SAID:

Further, verily, O mighty-armed one, hear thou My supreme word, which I shall declare to thee because thou lovest it, desiring what is dear to thee.

The hosts of the gods know not My birth, nor the mighty Seers; for I am the source of all the gods, and all the mighty Seers.

Who knows Me unborn, beginningless, mighty Lord of the world, he undeluded among mortals, is freed from all sin.

Soul-vision, wisdom, victory over delusion, patience, truth, control and peace, happiness, sorrow, birth and death, fear and valor;

Gentleness, equity, joy, fervor, charity, honor, dishonor, such are the natures of beings, proceeding from Me in their varied forms. (5)

The seven mighty Seers, and the four Lords of mankind are mind-born from My being, of whom these worlds are the offspring.

Who rightly knows this My splendor and power, he is united in unwavering union; this is altogether sure.

I am the source of all, from Me the universe comes forth; the Awakened, thinking thus, love Me, following after love.

Their hearts set on Me, their lives given to Me, handing this wisdom down, and imparting the knowledge of Me, they joy and rejoice forever.

To them, ever joined in union, and full of love, I give soul-vision, whereby they may enter into Me. (10)

Bending down to them, yet retaining My own nature, I drive away their darkness born of unwisdom, with the flaming lamp of wisdom.

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What are universal perfections?  Why does Mr. Judge title it this way?

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I would say that universal perfections are the universal ideas that underlie the universe and which manifest in human beings in the highest and noblest qualities we can imagine.  The underlaying Law the governs cause and effect comes forth in the enlightened mind as justice and fairness. This might be one way of looking at it.

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Grace has put it very succinctly.

"Whosoever knoweth me to be the mighty Ruler of the universe and without birth or beginning, he among men, undeluded, shall be liberated from all his sins."

In this one sentence, Krishna seems to be referring to both the Nirguna and Saguna aspect of the Supreme: complete transcendence on the one hand (unborn) and universal immanence or omnipresence on the other. It is reminiscent of the sloka that ends this chapter: "I establish this entire universe with a single portion of myself, and remain separate." This would seem to be the basis of the highest form of knowing that is not simply liberation from conditioned existence. It points to the perfectibility of human nature--our inherent capacity for an active participation in and comprehensive understanding of the entire process and every level of manifestation, while at the same time remaining in perfect rest in That which is unaffected by the coming and going of universes. 

 

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You might say the vantage point of the Sage, the Self-Governed Sage of chapter 2.

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Could universal perfections be thought of as archetypes? 

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Could you say that Krishna is speaking here from the vantage point of the Atman?

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In the Antecedent Words (pg. xiii), Judge quotes Subba Row, "the learned Brahmin Theosophist":

"Krishna was intended to represent the Logos (Buddhi or Atma-Buddhi?),...and Arjuna, who was called Nara, the human monad." (Manas or Buddhi-Manas?)

The words in parenthesis are mine. I welcome any comments or suggestions as to how to make sense of this quote from Subbha Row. Does it suggest a manner of approach to the reading of the Gita? Should it help us to understand the chapter under consideration?

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Your passage quoted is helpful at just about any level or perspective.  It marks the contrast between higher and lower whether they be Higher and Lower Manas or Atman and Budhhi-Manas or Guru and student, or Parent and child.  I think what is probably important to see is that these instructions are really coming from within.

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Permalink Reply by Ramprakash ML on November 27, 2014 at 4:26am
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by Kirk Marzulo on November 9, 2014 at 6:26pm

In the Antecedent Words (pg. xiii), Judge quotes Subba Row, "the learned Brahmin Theosophist":

"Krishna was intended to represent the Logos (Buddhi or Atma-Buddhi?),...and Arjuna, who was called Nara, the human monad." (Manas or Buddhi-Manas?)

The words in parenthesis are mine. I welcome any comments or suggestions as to how to make sense of this quote from Subbha Row. Does it suggest a manner of approach to the reading of the Gita? Should it help us to understand the chapter under consideration?

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An attempt to explain the meaning.

Krishna - Christos does represent the Higher Self, which is Atma, Buddhi and Manas = the three in one and one in three : Abstract spirit, Differentiated Spirit and Embodied Spirit. Krishna refers to himself as all these three in different contexts. He is Narayana = Nara-Ayana, the mover on the waters.

Book of Genesis : "Darkness was on the face of the deep. And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters."

Mover on the face of the waters refers to both the unmanifested Logos and Manifested Logos, the source and the origin of all. Krishna is Narayana, the mover on the waters. It is Atma aspect of Krishna, the SELF of All.

As Logos = Maha-Buddhi, Mahat, Universal Sixth Principle, is reflected in every Monad which emanate from Logos, as countless millions of sparks from a central Fire, this Universal Sixth Principle is Buddhi, the Divine Spark, which lurks in the heart of every atom as of every creature. This is Buddhi aspect of Krishna resident in the heart of every being.

"I am the Ego seated in the hearts of all beings" says Krishna, which should be the Higher Manas.

Arjuna is Nara = Man, the embodied Thinking Self, which each one us is = the higher aspiring  Lower Manas, seeking guidance from its Divine Parent Self, Narayana. 

The Nara has all the potentialities of Narayana = Universal Divine Perfections, in the germ. He has to develop it to fullness with the ideal before, or, within, him.

Permalink Reply by ModeratorTN on November 14, 2014 at 11:51pm
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ARJUNA:

“Thou art Parabrahman!1 the supreme abode, the great Purification; thou art the Eternal Presence, the Divine Being, before all other Gods, holy, primeval, all-pervading, without beginning! Thus thou art declared by all the Sages — by Narada, Asita, Devala, Vyasa, and thou thyself now dost say the same. I firmly believe all that thou, O Kesava, sayest unto me; for neither Gods nor demons comprehend thy manifestations. Thou alone knowest thyself by thy Self, Supreme Spirit, Creator and Master of all that lives, God of Gods, and Lord of all the universe! Thou alone canst fully declare thy divine powers by which thou hast pervaded and continuest to pervade these worlds. How shall I, constantly thinking of thee, be able to know thee, O mysterious Lord? In what particular forms shall I meditate on thee? O Janardana — besought by mortals — tell me therefore in full thine own powers and forms of manifestation, for I am never sated of drinking of the life-giving water of thy words.”

Permalink Reply by Kirk Marzulo on November 15, 2014 at 8:47pm
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The end of this passage reminds me of a phrase used in the opening pages of the SD, book 1: "the life-giving sacred lore..."

In what sense are the sacred texts and words of great sages and teachers of humanity "life-giving?"

Permalink Reply by Grace Cunningham on November 16, 2014 at 12:42pm
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What a delightful question.  The teachings are life giving to me because they give energy, direction and support to the evolutionary process.  Perhaps it is rather like catching wind in your sails.

Permalink Reply by Tamiko Yamada on November 23, 2014 at 10:12pm
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I see it as life giving because they offer hope.  Hope that we do can climb to the same heights that Krishna describes.

Permalink Reply by Ramprakash ML on December 1, 2014 at 9:53pm
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Giving life eternal is life giving. The Guru is one who removes darkness which envelopes the soul of the disciple and enable the disciple to be reborn from death to immortality, darkness to light, acquire Eternal Wisdom, which make him more than man, realize his Immortality, his true Self.

Permalink Reply by ModeratorTN on November 19, 2014 at 10:20pm
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From the Johnston Translation:

ARJUNA SAID:

The supreme Eternal, the supreme home, the supreme purifier art Thou, the everlasting Spirit, the divine; source of the gods, the unborn Lord; Thus have all the Seers declared Thee, and the divine Seer Narada also; and Asita, Devala and Vyasa, and Thou also sayest so to me.

All this I hold to be true which Thou speakest, O long-haired one; for neither the gods nor the spirits of darkness know Thy forthcoming, Lord!

Thou Thyself, through Thyself, knowest Thyself, most excellent Spirit, Creator of beings, Lord of beings, God of gods, Ruler of the world! (15)

Thou alone art worthy to declare Thy forms, for divine are the manifold forms of Thyself, whereby permeating these worlds, Thou dwellest in them.

How may I know Thee, O Lord of union, ever meditating on Thee? and in what forms art Thou to be thought of, Lord, by me?

Declare again in order Thy power and glory, O arouser of the people! for I can never be sated with hearing this immortal tale.

Permalink Reply by ModeratorTN on November 26, 2014 at 10:00am
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Krishna responds:

KRISHNA:

“O best of Kurus, blessings be upon thee.2 I will make thee acquainted with the chief of my divine manifestations, for the extent of my nature is infinite.

“I am the Ego which is seated in the hearts of all beings; I am the beginning, the middle, and the end of all existing things. Among Adityas3 I am Vishnu, and among luminous bodies I am the sun. I am Marichi among the Maruts4, and among heavenly mansions I am the moon. Among the Vedas I am the Samaveda5,and Indra6 among the Gods; among the senses and organs I am the Manas7, and of creatures the existence. I am Sankara among the Rudras; and Vittesa, the lord of wealth among the Yakshas8 and Rakshasas.9 I am Pavaka among the Vasus10, and Meru11 among high-aspiring mountains. And know, O son of Pritha, that I am Brihaspati12, the chief of teachers; among leaders of celestial armies Skanda, and of floods I am the ocean. I am Bhrigu among the Adept Kings; of words I am the monosyllable OM; of forms of worship, the silent repetition of sacred texts, and of immovable things I am the Himalaya. Of all the trees of the forest I am Asvattha the Pippala tree; and of the celestial Sages, Narada; among Gandharvas13 I am Chitraratha, and of perfect saints, Kapila. Know that among horses I am Uchchaisrava, who arose with the Amrita out of the ocean; among elephants, Airavata, and among men their sovereigns. Of weapons I am the thunderbolt; among cows, Kamadhuk, the cow of plenty; of procreators, the God of love, and of serpents, Vasuki14, their chief. I am Ananta among the Nagas15, Varuna among things of the waters; among the ancestors, Aryarman, and of all who judge I am Yama.16 Among the Daityas I am Prahlada, and among computations I am Time itself; the lion among beasts, and Garuda17 among the feathered tribe.

Permalink Reply by Margreet Buitenhuis on November 27, 2014 at 10:27am
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I am sorry if I created the understanding that “The Studies in the Bhagavad Gita” are mine for they are not. I received this many years ago from New York as a kind of correspondence study, since then we made copies of this and refer and study it in our study class which have been very helpful and for this reason I like to share it with all of you.

THE STUDIES IN THE GITA:

“O best of Kurus, blessings be upon thee.2 I will make thee acquainted with the chief of my divine manifestations, for the extent of my nature is infinite.

“I am the Ego which is seated in the hearts of all beings; I am the beginning, the middle, and the end of all existing things.

Seated in the hearts of ALL beings. He is not to be found only in this or that particular form, but in all forms. He is not in any particular place, but in all places. He is the cause, the life and the sustainer of the world of space and time. Seated in the heart, He is the cause of everything, good and bad. Is it not our heart that compels and colors the thoughts and acts that make up our lives

 Among Adityas3 I am Vishnu, and among luminous bodies I am the sun. I am Marichi among the Maruts4, and among heavenly mansions I am the moon. Among the Vedas I am the Samaveda5,and Indra6 among the Gods; among the senses and organs I am the Manas7, and of creatures the existence. I am Sankara among the Rudras; and Vittesa, the lord of wealth among the Yakshas8 and Rakshasas.9 I am Pavaka among the Vasus10, and Meru11 among high-aspiring mountains. And know, O son of Pritha, that I am Brihaspati12, the chief of teachers; among leaders of celestial armies Skanda, and of floods I am the ocean.

In attempting to show Arjuna that He is the One Life in all manifestation, Krishna begins with the universal forms and forces, the “Gods” of manifestation, following the plan of the cyclic creation of worlds. And, like the sun, he is the life-force behind both the good and the evil. He is that power and potentiality that can produce both the best of the good and best of the evil, the power that creates the leaf and the power that destroys it.

 I am Bhrigu among the Adept Kings; of words I am the monosyllable OM; of forms of worship, the silent repetition of sacred texts, and of immovable things I am the Himalaya. Of all the trees of the forest I am Asvattha the Pippala tree; and of the celestial Sages, Narada; among Gandharvas13 I am Chitraratha, and of perfect saints, Kapila.

We would not suggest that Krishna is asking Arjuna to worship all the many things, forces and beings that He has listed, but that He is turning his pupil’s attention to the “divine perfections” in each. It is not an easy task to turn our attention away from things that can be perceived by the five senses even though we know that it is the nature of “things” to disintegrate and cease to exist. It seems to be that only with those we love do we see the character or enduring “perfections” within. That is why the teachers so often use metaphor which is a bridge between the material plane and the planes of feeling or idea.

 Know that among horses I am Uchchaisrava, who arose with the Amrita out of the ocean; among elephants, Airavata, and among men their sovereigns. Of weapons I am the thunderbolt; among cows, Kamadhuk, the cow of plenty; of procreators, the God of love, and of serpents, Vasuki14, their chief. I am Ananta among the Nagas15, Varuna among things of the waters; among the ancestors, Aryarman, and of all who judge I am Yama.16 Among the Daityas I am Prahlada, and among computations I am Time itself; the lion among beasts, and Garuda17 among the feathered tribe.  

These names of forces, beings, animals, etc., are, of course, from the many stories in the Vedas, and particularly in the Mahabharata. The stories, in their turn, are myths that clothe a deeper philosophical and psychological meaning just as does the “story” of the Bhagavad-Gita. Until the publication of the works of H.P.Blavatsky there was a strong tendency among the Orientalists to regard the Vedas as useless “fairy tales.” But since then, with the keys that She brought, these Vedas have become an almost bottomless mine of philosophic and historic treasure.

Permalink Reply by ModeratorTN on November 30, 2014 at 4:27pm
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End of Selection Judge Rendition:

Among purifiers I am Pavana, the air; Rama among those who carry arms, Makara among the fishes, and the Ganges among rivers. Among that which is evolved, O Arjuna, I am the beginning, the middle, and the end; of all sciences I am the knowledge of the Adhyatma,18 and of uttered sounds the human speech. Among letters I am the vowel A, and of all compound words I am the Dvandva;19 I am endless time itself, and the Preserver whose face is turned on all sides. I am all-grasping death, and the birth of those who are to be; among feminine things I am fame, fortune, speech, memory, intelligence, patience, and forgiveness. Among the hymns of the Samaveda I am Brihat-Saman, and the Gayatri among metres; among months I am the month Margasirsha,20 and of seasons spring called Kusumakara, the time of flowers. Of those things which deceive I am the dice, and splendor itself among splendid things. I am victory, I am perseverance, and the goodness of the good. Of the race of Vrishni I am Vasudeva; of the Pandava I am Arjuna the conqueror of wealth; of perfect saints I am Vyasa,21 and of prophet-seers I am the bard Usana. Among rulers I am the rod of punishment, among those desiring conquest I am policy; and among the wise of secret knowledge I am their silence. I am, O Arjuna, the seed of all existing things, and there is not anything, whether animate or inanimate which is without me. My divine manifestations, O harasser of thy foes, are without end, the many which I have mentioned are by way of example. Whatever creature is permanent, of good fortune or mighty, also know it to be sprung from a portion of my energy. But what, O Arjuna, hast thou to do with so much knowledge as this? I established this whole universe with a single portion of myself, and remain separate.”


Permalink Reply by ModeratorTN on November 30, 2014 at 4:28pm
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Final Section Johnston rendition:

Among purifiers, I am the wind; I am Rama among warriors; among fish, I am the sacred crocodile; among rivers I am the Ganges.

Of all that comes forth, I am the beginning and middle and end, O Arjuna; among sciences, I am the science of the divine soul; I am the word of those that speak.

Among letters, I am A; I am the dual among compounds; I am unwaning Time; I am the Ruler, appearing through all things.

I am all-consuniing Death; I am the birth of things that shall be; I am honor, grace, voice, among things feminine; and memory and wisdom, firmness, patience.

Among chants, I am the great Chant; among hymns, I am the Gayatri; among months, I am the month of the deer-head; I am flower-bringing spring among the seasons. (35)

I am the dice among uncertain things; the fire of the fiery; I am victory and decision; I am the goodness of the good.

Among the children of Vrishni, I am Vasudeva; among the sons of Pandu, I am Arjuna, conqueror of wealth; among silent seers, I am Vyasa; among poets, I am Ushanas the poet.

I am the scepter of the dominant; I am the rule of those seeking victory; I am the silence of things secret; I am the wisdom of the wise.

And whatever is the seed among all beings, that am I, O Arjuna; nothing that is could be without Me, among things moving or unmoving.

Nor is there any end of My divine forms, O consumer of the foe; this I have told thee for thy instruction, as an enumeration of My manifold forms. (40)

Whatever being is glorious, gracious or powerful, thou shalt recognize that as sprung from a fragment of My fire.

But what need hast Thou of this manifold wisdom, O Arjuna? With one part of My being I stand establishing this whole world.